学术刊物

群众史观对于“神圣家族”的一种政治的哲学解码
发布日期:2018年07月05日 09:31  点击数:

作  者:张文喜
关 键 词:神圣家族;群众;神学;黑格尔哲学
摘  要:1844年《神圣家族》以实践的唯物主义为主导,通过考察黑格尔派在精神这个论题上的反对群众的、政治的、神学的多个维度,为重新定义合乎时代精神的哲学的可能路径留下了深刻的标记。唯物史观在其产生之初,就希望澄清黑格尔的唯心主义体系的性质。但唯物史观并不是要借助超乎寻常的理论权威得到普遍真理。依据《神圣家族》的观点,唯物史观描述了“世俗的胃”与身外世界的关系,并揭示了黑格尔派的“心灵的深处”如何因 此落入感性之物。我们阅读《神圣家族》仿如黑格尔吹嘘的“全体”真理的洋葱皮被层层剥去。通过马克思对“精神”的思考以及对哲学家(作为历史的“证人”)的嘲讽可以洞察到人类思维中的某种普遍倾向,即超凡脱俗是人类思维的广泛的共通性,它是人类的政治的神学的思维的反映。而黑格尔派使西方哲学沉溺于形而上学关于真理问题所思虑过的一切可能性 本身,必须在精神和群众、哲学和日常意识等议题之间的隔膜应予突破所造成的场合中努力。只有这样,我们才会同情并理解那种对思辨的形而上学和一切形而上学的谴责,同时领会那种将它与对神学的政治的种种前提的批判配合起来的做法。就像在 1844 年《神圣家族》中那样,就像在那里、在实践领域里体现了历史唯物主义的时候那样。

A Political Philosophical Decoding of “The Holy Family” from the Perspective of Theory of the Masses

Zhang Wenxi (Renmin University of China)

Abstract The Holy Family in 1844 is dominated by practical materialism. It explores possible ways to redefine the philosophy of Zeitgeist by examining different angles of the Hegelian theology including the opposition to mass, political philosophy and theological aspects. The aim of the Historical Materialism clarifies the nature of Hegel’s idealism system at the beginning of the birth, instead a universal truth by extraordinary theoretical authority. According to the The Holy Family , the Historical Materialism describes the relationship between “the worldly stomach” and the outside world, revealing the Hegelian view: how the “depth of the soul” falls into the sensibility. We read The Holy Family just as Hegel’s boasting about “all” truth which removes its skin like an onion. We can perceive the general tendency in human thinking through Marx’s reflection on the “spirit” and the taunt of philosophers (as a historical “witnesses”): the transcendence and freedom from vulgarity is the universality of human thinking, which is the reflection of human’s political and theological thinking. The Hegelian indulges Western philosophy into all metaphysical possibilities of the truth itself. It is necessary to take efforts in removing barriers between the spirit and the masses, philosophy and daily consciousness and the other topics. Only in this way can we sympathize with the metaphysics and its all condemnation, and understand the practice of combining it with the criticism of the various premises of theological politics. It embodies the Historical Materialism in practical area as much as it shows when in The Holy Family in 1844, it’s like the time when it embodies Historical Materialism in the field of practice.

Key words The Holy Family ; the masses; theology; Hegelian philosophy